Process Instrumentation and Control Outline

Process Instrumentation and Control Outline

Module 1 - SENSORS AND SYMBOLOGY

1- Introduction

What Is Instrumentation and Controls (I&C)?   

Selection of Measurement and Control Devices

Safety

Equipment Location

Performance

Air Supply, Electrical Supply

Grounding

Installation and Maintenance

2- Identification Symbols

Instrument Identification and Line Symbols

General Instrument or Function Symbols

(Per ISA Standards)

3- Analyzer Systems

Overview, Comparison Table

Location

Tagging

Implementation

Safety

Code compliance

Selection

Documentation

Sampling systems

Enclosures

Testing and Startup

Maintenance

4- Flow measurement

Overview, Comparison

Differential Pressure (Orifice Plate, Venturi, Flow Nozzle, Pitot Tube, etc.)

Magnetic

Mass: Coriolis

Thermal 

Turbine

Positive Displacement          

Vortex Shedding

Variable Area (Rotameter) 

Ultrasonic: Transit Time

Ultrasonic: Doppler

Weir and Flume

Target

5- Level measurement

Overview, Classification

Measurement of Solids, Comparison

Mechanical: Float, Weight and Cable, Tape (Float and Tape)        

Buoyancy: Displacement      

Hydrostatic: Gage, Diaphragm, Bubbler (Dip Tube), Differential Pressure, Elevation/Suppression

Electrical: Capacitance, Conductivity, Resistance Tape

Waves & Pulses: Sonic/Ultrasonic, Radar, Laser, Beam Breakers

Others: Paddle Wheel, Vibration, Thermal, Radioactive (Nuclear)

Load Cells

6- Pressure and Temperature measurement 

A- Pressure: Overview, Comparison Table

Units of Measurement

Gages, Transmitters, Filled Systems and Diaphragm Seals

Installation

 

B- Temperature: Overview, Comparison Table

Thermowells

Bimetallic

Thermocouple

Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD)

EXAM for Module 1

 

Module 2 - CONTROL FUNCTIONS

7- Control Loops

Overview, Control Function Considerations:

Control Modes (On-Off, Modulating, PID Control)

Control Types (Feedback, Cascade, Ratio, Feedforward)

 Controller Tuning (Automatic, Manual)

8- Programmable Electronic Systems

Overview, Components

Centralized vs. Distributed (PLCs, PCs, DCSs)

Control Room Instrumentation (Controllers, Recorders, Relays, Annunciators)

Application of Current Loop Resistors

Programming languages (IEC)

Fieldbus, System specification

Operator Interface (Graphics, Alarms, Trends, Reports)

Special Design Considerations, Vendor Selection

Testing, Maintenance

9- Alarm and Trip Systems

Overview

Fail-Safe and De-enegize-to-Trip

Elements (Inputs, Logic, Output)

Design, Documentation

Testing  (Input, Logic, Output)

Management of Change

10- Control Centers and Enclosures

A- Control Centers: Overview, Design, Physical Aspects      

Security, Fire Protection, Air Conditioning        

Electrical/Electronic Considerations, Communication           

B- Enclosures: Overview, General Requirements 

Documentation, Fabrication, Protection and Rating

Electrical, Pneumatics 

Temperature and Humidity Control

Inspection and Testing, Certification, Shipping

11- Control Valves

Overview, Comparison Table

Valve Shutoff

Flashing and Cavitation, Valve Pressure Drop

Installation Notes

The Cv

Valve Bodies

Trim

Actuators, Valve Positioners

EXAM for Module 2

 

Module 3 - INSTALLATION AND ENGINEERING FUNCTIONS

12- Engineering Design and Documentation - Part 1

Front-end engineering,

Process and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs)

Control System Definition

Logic Diagrams

13- Engineering Design and Documentation - Part 2

Detailed engineering 

Process Data Sheets

Instrument Index

Instrument Specification Sheets

Loop Diagrams, Interlock Diagrams

Manuals for Programmable Electronic Systems

PLC Program Documentation

Engineering Contractor Scope of Work

Packaged Equipment Scope of Work

14- Installation

Overview, Scope of Work

Installation Details

Equipment Identification

Equipment Storage

Work Specifically Excluded

Approved Products

Pre-installation Testing

Execution, Wiring, Tubing

Check-out

15- Project Implementation and Management

Overview

Process Control

Communication

Standard and Code Compliance

Control Strategy, Business Strategy

Implementation of New Control Systems

Scheduling and Time Management, Cost Estimate

Document Control

Engineering (Front-end and Detailed)

Training

Installation, Commissioning, Start-up

Project Closing

16- Decision Making

Overview

Auditing

Evaluation of Plant Needs

Justification

Control System Evaluation

EXAM for Module 3